The Equator, that red imaginary horizontal line at 0º degrees latitude at the center of the earth, divides the earth into the Northern and Southern Hemispheres.
The red vertical imaginary line called the Prime Meridian, at 0º degrees longitude, and its twin longitude line opposite, the Prime Meridian at 180º longitude, divides the earth into two halves, called Eastern and Western Hemispheres.
Therefore (with some exceptions) all countries north of the Equator are in the of Northern Hemisphere, while all countries south of the Equator are in the Southern Hemisphere. In addition, all countries west of the Prime Meridian are in the Western Hemisphere while those east of the Prime Meridian are in the Eastern Hemisphere.
Generally the Eastern Hemisphere includes most of Africa, about half of Antarctica, all of Asia and Australia/Oceania, and most of Europe.
The Western Hemisphere includes about half of Antarctica and all of North and which includes the Caribbean, Central America and Greenland.
The Northern Hemisphere includes all of North America, including the north most part of South America, about two-thirds of Africa, all of Asia excluding (parts of Indonesia) and all of Europe.
The Southern Hemisphere includes most of South America, one-third of Africa, all of Antarctica, a small sliver of Asia (parts of Indonesia) and all of Australia/Oceania.
There are exceptions as some continents (and their countries) based on the straight line divisions of the Equator and Prime Meridian are a part of two hemispheres.
- Why We Have Seasons (biglittlescientists.wordpress.com)
- Dramatic rise in methane levels since end July 2013 (arctic-news.blogspot.com)